Volume 10 Issue 1 - March 1, 2016
The Third Voice: Do Enhanced E-books Enhance the Benefits of Shared Story Reading with Preschoolers?
This study from which this paper draws examined the benefits of reading plain e-books (with parental instruction) compared to enhanced e-books (with limited parental direction) with 3- to 5-year-old children. Interaction was measured through parent-child verbal communication and eye contact. Engagement was measured through time spent visually focused on the story, and retention was measured through open-ended story event recall questions and multiple-choice story vocabulary questions. There were no differences between the enhanced and plain e-book conditions in children’s qualitative engagement with the story, or in the amounts of vocabulary or story events they retained. While enhanced e-books resulted in more time spent gazing at the device, parents and children were significantly more interactive when reading plain e-books. These findings suggest that while both plain and enhanced e-books are effective in aiding children’s retention of words and story events, plain e-books read by a caregiver are better at promoting meaningful conversation.
The concern over the nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) has increased in recent years, as the public and substance use experts become increasingly aware of the high prevalence of such prescription drug use. Despite increased research in this area, little research has focused on the motivations for NMUPD. This is a noteworthy limitation, as recreational users may be quite different from those who are using prescription drugs without a prescription to treat a medical illness/condition. The present study uses data from over 11,000 eleventh grade students to model the predictors of NMUPD by motivation for using. Results indicate that recreational users and self-treating users have some similarities, but significant differences were found with effect sizes and direction varying between these groups. Implications suggest that researchers and practitioners alike should be careful to separate self-treatment and recreational NMUPD, which have distinct risk factors